Provisional government

Fischer 407 | Michel 439 | Scott 391 | Year of issue 1946 | Communist Poland

The second anniversary of the provisional government (the July manifesto).

Portraits of
Edward Osóbka-Morawski (left), Bolesław Bierut (center) and Michał Rola-Żymierski (right)


A provisional government of national unity in Poland
1945, April 21: The Soviet government and a Polish provisional government set up in Moscow agreed on a 20-year treaty of mutual aid. June 12: The British and French, who favored the Polish government in exile in London, persuaded the USSR to agree to a tripartite commission that would aid in the organization of a Polish government. At the Yalta conference, Poland's eastern territories were reduced approximately to the "Curzon line" of 1919, while its western border, pending a final peace settlement, was extended to the Oder-Neisse line in eastern Germany. The leadership of postwar Poland was claimed by two rival groups, the Soviet-sponsored provisional government at Lublin, and the Polish government in exile in London. June 28: After lengthy negotiations, a government of national unity was formed, under socialist premier Eduard Osóbka-Morawski of the Lublin administration. It was recognized by the Western powers, though its leanings turned out to be decidedly pro-Soviet. For this reason, many Polish citizens who, as displaced persons or members of Poland's armed forces, were still in Western Europe refused to be repatriated.

Edward Osóbka-Morawski
On June 29, 1945, a provisional government of national unity was formed by Edward Osóbka-Morawski, a pro-communist socialist, in which Lublin committee members held 17 of the 21 posts. Mikołajczyk and Gomułka were made deputy premiers, with Osóbka-Morawski as president. Another communist, Bolesław Bierut, remained president of the provisory parliament, called the National Home Council. Most of the ministers were communists or men with pro-communist leanings. Michał Rola-Żymierski was first commander of the Polish People's Army.

Relevant pages

Fischer 416 (overprint)

Find other Polish stamps commemorating the July Manifesto
Find other Polish stamps depicting the Polish eagle
Find other Polish stamps depicting Bolesław Bierut


Provisional government of the Republic of Poland
July Manifesto
July Manifesto (
Polish Committee of National Liberation
Bolesław Bierut
Edward Osóbka-Morawski
Michał Rola-Żymierski

(Imperforated issue)