100th anniversary of the People's Spring. The 1848 revolution was called The People's Spring or The Spring of Nations.
Henryk Dembiński (1791-1864) Polish general.
Józef Bem (1794-1850) Polish-Hungarian freedom fighter. He was born in Tarnów in 1794, took part in the November uprising in 1830/1831 and in the Springtime of Nations in Austria and Hungary in 1848. He died of malaria in Aleppo (Syria) in 1850.
Stanislaw Worcell (1799-1857) Polish revolutionist, author, journalist.
Piotr Ściegienny (1801-90) organized a revolutionary conspiracy among peasants in the Lublin area against tsarist rule. He wrote a political tract in 1842, under the guise of a papal encyclical, which defended a Christian version of socialism. He was discovered and sentenced to a Siberian labour camp.
Edward Dembowski (1822-1846) Politician, philosopher, journalist, independence fighter, one of the leaders of the Kraków revolution of 1846.
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) German socialist politician, one of the co-organizors and leaders of the First and Second Internationals.
An International, in this case, is a leftwing political workers association. The First International was founded in 1864 in London. The statutes (arranged mainly by Karl Marx) were approved in the first Geneva congress in 1866. After a period of decay, the association revived as the Second International which held congress every 2 or 3 years until World War I. In 1916, the communists separated and in March 1919 founded the Third International in Moscow.
Karl Marx (1818-1882) German philosopher, economist, journalist and politician. Contemporary socialism and communism originate from his socialist studies (Marxism).
Wiosna ludów = People's Spring.